Creating Pure CSS Lightboxes With The :target Selector

This tutorial will show you how to create a JavaScript-free lightbox using CSS only. To accomplish this, we will make use of the :target selector from the CSS3 spec. Click the thumbnail below to see the lightbox in action, or see the full demo on CodePen.

This will work in any browser above IE8.

What is the :target Selector?

The :target selector is similar to other (better known) selectors like :focus and :visited. Any styles associated with a :target selector are applied when the id of the targeted element is the same as the URL hash of the current page. Here is a simple example of :target being used:

<!-- Simple :target demo -->

<style>
  div:target { color: green; }
</style>

<div id="foo">Target Element</div>

<!-- links to change the URL hash -->
<a href="#foo">Activate</a>
<a href="#_">Deactivate</a>

view on CodePen

In this example, the “Target Element” text will turn green after clicking the “Activate” link because the URL hash will change to #foo, which is the same as the id of the “Target Element”.

Now that we know how to use the :target selector we can use this principle to trigger the display of a lightbox.

The way this lightbox will work is simple. All we need to do is hide a lightbox somewhere on the page and unhide it when it is the :target element.

<!-- Lightbox usage markup -->

<!-- thumbnail image wrapped in a link -->
<a href="#img1">
  <img src="/images/pig-small.jpg">
</a>

<!-- lightbox container hidden with CSS -->
<a href="#_" class="lightbox" id="img1">
  <img src="/images/pig-big.jpg">
</a>

In the example above, clicking the first link (thumbnail) will change the page hash and result in the second element (lightbox) becoming the target. To disable the lightbox, the lightbox image is wrapped in a link that will change the page hash to something that doesn’t reference a valid element id.

We use the hash #_ to deactivate the lightbox, but any random hash will do the trick.

Now all we need to do is write a few lines of CSS. The following CSS is commented to help you understand what is going on.

/*************************************
 * Basic lightbox styles. Notice the
 * default 'display' is 'none'.
 */

.lightbox {
  /** Hide the lightbox */
  display: none;

  /** Apply basic lightbox styling */
  position: fixed;
  z-index: 9999;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  text-align: center;
  top: 0;
  left: 0;
  background: black;
  background: rgba(0,0,0,0.8);
}

.lightbox img {
  /** Pad the lightbox image */
  max-width: 90%;
  max-height: 80%;
  margin-top: 2%;
}

.lightbox:target {
  /** Show lightbox when it is target */
  display: block;

  /** Remove default browser outline style */
  outline: none;
}

Conclusion

That’s it! You now have a fully-functional CSS-only lightbox that can be used almost anywhere (stupid IE). If you have any questions let me know in the comments below.

Happy coding!

tutorial webdev